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The history of cosmetics spans at least 7,000 years and is present in almost every society on earth. Cosmetic body art is argued to have been the earliest form of a ritual in human culture. The evidence for this comes in the form of utilised red mineral pigments (red ochre) including crayons associated with the emergence of Homo sapiens in Africa. Cosmetics a

The history of cosmetics spans at least 7,000 years and is present in almost every society on earth. Cosmetic body art is argued to have been the earliest form of a ritual in human culture. The evidence for this comes in the form of utilised red mineral pigments (red ochre) including crayons associated with the emergence of Homo sapiens in Africa. Cosmetics are mentioned in the Old Testament—2 Kings 9:30 where Jezebel painted her eyelids—approximately 840 BC—and the book of Esther describes various beauty treatments as well.

Cosmetics were also used in ancient Rome, although much of Roman literature suggests that it was frowned upon. It is known that some women in ancient Rome invented make up including lead-based formulas, to whiten the skin, and kohl was used to line the eyes.

North Africa
Egypt
The use of cosmetics in Ancient Egypt is well documented. Kohl has its roots in north Africa. Remedies to treat wrinkles contained ingredients such as gum of frankincense and fresh moringa. For scars and burns, a special ointment was made of red ochre, kohl, and sycamore juice. An alternative treatment was a poultice of carob grounds and honey, or an ointment made of knotgrass and powdered root of wormwood. To improve breath the ancient Africans chewed herbs or frankincense which is still in use today. Jars of what could be compared with setting lotion have been found to contain a mixture of beeswax and resin. These doubled as remedies for problems such as baldness and greying hair. They also used these products on their mummies, because they believed that it would make them irresistible in the after life.

Asia
China

A Beijing opera performer with traditional stage make up
Chinese people began to stain their fingernails with gum arabic, gelatin, beeswax and egg white from around 3000 BC. The colors used represented social class: Chou dynasty (first millennium BC) royals wore gold and silver; later royals wore black or red. The lower classes were forbidden to wear bright colors on their nails.

Flowers play an important decorative role in China. Legend has it that once on the 7th day of the 1st lunar month, while Princess Shouyang, daughter of Emperor Wu of Liu Song, was resting under the eaves of Hanzhang Palace near the plum trees after wandering in the gardens, a plum blossom drifted down onto her fair face, leaving a floral imprint on her forehead that enhanced her beauty further.The court ladies were said to be so impressed, that they started decorating their own foreheads with a small delicate plum blossom design. This is also the mythical origin of the floral fashion, meihua zhuang[10] (梅花妝; literally “plum blossom makeup”), that originated in the Southern Dynasties (420–589) and became popular amongst ladies in the Tang (618–907) and Song (960–1279) dynasties.

Mongolia
Women of royal families painted red spots on the center of their cheeks, right under their eyes. However, it is a mystery why.[citation needed]

Japan

A maiko in the Gion district of Kyoto, Japan, in full make-up. The style of the lipstick indicates that she is still new.
In Japan, geisha wore lipstick made of crushed safflower petals to paint the eyebrows and edges of the eyes as well as the lips, and sticks of bintsuke wax, a softer version of the sumo wrestlers’ hair wax, were used by geisha as a makeup base. Rice powder colors the face and back; rouge contours the eye socket and defines the nose.[14] Ohaguro (black paint) colours the teeth for the ceremony, called Erikae, when maiko (apprentice geisha) graduate and become independent. The geisha would also sometimes use bird droppings to compile a lighter color.

Western Asia

Egyptian cosmetics box from the Bronze Age, Hecht Museum, Haifa
Cosmetics were used in Persia and what today is Iran from ancient periods. [citation needed] Kohl is a black powder that is used widely across the Persian Empire. It is used as a powder or smeared to darken the edges of the eyelids similar to eyeliner. After Persian tribes converted to Islam and conquered those areas, in some areas cosmetics were only restricted if they were to disguise the real look in order to mislead or cause uncontrolled desire.[citation needed] In Islamic law, despite these requirements, there is no absolute prohibition on wearing cosmetics; the cosmetics must not be made of substances that harm one’s body.

An early teacher in the 10th century was Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi, or Abulcasis, who wrote the 24-volume medical encyclopedia Al-Tasrif. A chapter of the 19th volume was dedicated to cosmetics. As the treatise was translated into Latin, the cosmetic chapter was used in the West. Al-Zahrawi considered cosmetics a branch of medicine, which he called “Medicine of Beauty” (Adwiyat al-Zinah). He deals with perfumes, scented aromatics and incense. There were perfumed sticks rolled and pressed in special molds, perhaps the earliest antecedents of present-day lipsticks and solid deodorants. He also used oily substances called Adhan for medication and beautification.[citation needed]

Europe
See also: Cosmetics in ancient Rome

1889 painting Woman at her Toilette by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
In the Roman Empire, the use of cosmetics was common amongst prostitutes and rich women. Such adornment was sometimes lamented by certain Roman writers, who thought it to be against the castitas required of women by what they considered traditional Roman values; and later by Christian writers who expressed similar sentiments in a slightly different context. Pliny the Elder mentioned cosmetics in his Naturalis Historia, and Ovid wrote a book on the topic.

In the Middle Ages it was thought sinful and immoral to wear makeup by Church leaders,[citation needed] but many women still did so. From the Renaissance up until the 20th century the lower classes had to work outside, in agricultural jobs and the typically light-colored European’s skin was darkened by exposure to the sun. The higher a person was in status, the more leisure time he or she had to spend indoors, which kept their skin pale. Thus, the highest class of European society were pale resulting in European men and women attempting to lighten their skin directly, or using white powder on their skin to look more aristocratic.[citation needed] A variety of products were used, including white lead paint which also may have contained arsenic, which also poisoned and killed many.[citation needed] Queen Elizabeth I of England was one well-known user of white lead, with which she created a look known as “the Mask of Youth”. Portraits of the queen by Nicholas Hilliard from later in her reign are illustrative of her influential style.[citation needed]

Pale faces were a trend during the European Middle Ages. In the 16th century, women would bleed themselves to achieve pale skin. Spanish prostitutes wore pink makeup to contract pale skin.[citation needed] 13th century Italian women wore red lipstick to show that they were upper class…

The Americas and Australia
Some Native American tribes painted their faces for ceremonial events or battle.[citation needed] Similar practices were followed by Aboriginals in Australia.

Source: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

References:

  1. ^ Power, Camilla (2010). “Cosmetics, identity and consciousness”. Journal of Consciousness Studies. 17 (7–8): 73–94.
  2. ^ Power, C. (2004). “Women in prehistoric art”. In Berghaus, G. (ed.). New Perspectives in Prehistoric Art. Westport, CT & London: Praeger. pp. 75–104.
  3. ^ Watts, Ian (2009). “Red ochre, body painting and language: interpreting the Blombos ochre”. In Botha, Rudolf; Knight, Chris (eds.). The Cradle of Language. OUP Oxford. pp. 62–92. ISBN 978-0-19-156767-4.
  4. ^ Watts, Ian (1 September 2010). “The pigments from Pinnacle Point Cave 13B, Western Cape, South Africa”. Journal of Human Evolution. 59 (3): 392–411. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2010.07.006. PMID 20934093.
  5. ^ Lesley Adkins, Roy A. Adkins, Handbook to life in Ancient Greece, Oxford University Press, 1998[page needed]
  6. ^ Bruno Burlando, Luisella Verotta, Laura Cornara, and Elisa Bottini-Massa, Herbal Principles in Cosmetics, CRC Press, 2010
  7. ^ Olson, Kelly (2009). “Cosmetics in Roman Antiquity: Substance, Remedy, Poison”. Classical World. 102 (3): 291–310. doi:10.1353/clw.0.0098. JSTOR 40599851. Project MUSE 266767.
  8. ^ “A History of Nail Lacquer: Blood Red Nails On Your Fingertips”. www.beautifully-invisible.com.
  9. ^ Jump up to:a b Cai, Zong-qi, ed. (2008). How to read Chinese poetry: A guided anthology. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 295. ISBN 978-0-231-13941-0.
  10. ^ Jump up to:a b c Wang, Betty. “Flower deities mark the lunar months with stories of Love & Tragedy”. Taiwan Review. Government Information Office, Republic of China. Archived from the originalon 25 May 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
  11. ^ West & East 中美月刊. Sino-American Cultural and Economic Association. 36–37: 9. 1991. ISSN 0043-3047https://books.google.com/books?ei=qXyQTqOYOIqVOpbimcwN.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  12. ^ Jump up to:a b Huo, Jianying. “Ancient Cosmetology”. China Today. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
  13. ^ Mei, Hua (2011). Chinese clothing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-521-18689-6. For example, the Huadian or forehead decoration was said to have originated in the South Dynasty, when the Shouyang Princess was taking a walk in the palace in early spring and a light breeze brought a plum blossom onto her forehead. The plum blossom for some reason could not be washed off or removed in any way. Fortunately, it looked beautiful on her, and all of a sudden became all the rage among the girls of the commoners. It is therefore called the “Shouyang makeup” or the “plum blossom makeup.” This makeup was popular among the women for a long time in the Tang and Song Dynasties.
  14. ^ Make-Up of Geisha and Maiko Archived 9 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Immortal Geisha. Retrieved on 29 September 2010.
  15. ^ Oumeish, Oumeish Youssef (July 2001). “The cultural and philosophical concepts of cosmetics in beauty and art through the medical history of mankind”. Clinics in Dermatology. 19 (4): 375–386. doi:10.1016/s0738-081x(01)00194-8. PMID 11535377.
  16. ^ History of Cosmetics. Health-and-beauty-advice.com. Retrieved on 29 September 2010.
  17. ^ inFlux ’99 | A Colorful History. Influx.uoregon.edu. Retrieved on 29 September 2010.
  18. ^ Sava, Sanda (5 May 2016). “A history of Make-up & Fashion: 1900-1910”. sandasava.com. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
  19. ^ Jump up to:a b c Angeloglou 1970, p. 113.
  20. ^ Angeloglou 1970, p. 114.
  21. ^ Angeloglou 1970, p. 115.
  22. ^ Peiss 1998, p. 55.
  23. ^ Angeloglou 1970, p. 116.
  24. ^ Angeloglou 1970, p. 117.
  25. ^ Peiss 1998, p. 58.
  26. ^ Angeloglou 1970, p. 119.
  27. ^ Angeloglou 1970, p. 125.
  28. ^ Jump up to:a b c Teresa Riordan. Inventing Beauty. (New York: Broadway Books, 2004).[page needed]
  29. ^ L’Oréal. Loreal.com (8 December 2009). (accessed on 29 September 2010).
  30. ^ Jump up to:a b Haiken, Elizabeth (2000). “The Making of the Modern Face: Cosmetic Surgery”. Social Research. 67 (1): 81–97. JSTOR 40971379. PMID 17099986.
  31. ^ Lee, Shu-Yueh; Clark, Naeemah (2014). “The Normalization of Cosmetic Surgery in Women’s Magazines from 1960 to 1989”. Journal of Magazine Media. 15 (1). doi:10.1353/jmm.2014.0014. Project MUSE 773691.
  32. ^ Dorman, Jacob S. (1 June 2011). “Skin bleach and civilization: the racial formation of blackness in 1920s Harlem” (PDF). Journal of Pan African Studies. 4 (4): 47–81. Gale A306514735.
  33. ^ “Modern Living: Black Cosmetics”. Time Magazine. 29 June 1970. (accessed 9 February 2010).
  34. ^ Angeloglou 1970, p. 127.
  35. ^ Angeloglou 1970, p. 131.
  36. ^ Dow, Bonnie J. (2003). “Feminism, Miss America, and Media Mythology”. Rhetoric & Public Affairs. 6 (1): 127–149. doi:10.1353/rap.2003.0028. S2CID 143094250.
  37. ^ Duffett, Judith (October 1968). WLM vs. Miss America. Voice of the Women’s Liberation Movement. p. 4.
  38. ^ Angeloglou 1970, p. 138.
  39. ^ “Cosmetics and Personal Care Products Naobay”. Charles Ross & Son Company. (accessed 7 June 2009).
  40. ^ Jump up to:a b Angeloglou 1970, p. 135.
  41. ^ Angeloglou 1970, p. 137.
  42. ^ Peiss 1998, p. 5.
  43. ^ “Lessons from categorising the entire beauty products sector (Part 1)”. p. 1. Retrieved 28 September 2009.
  44. ^ “Cosmetics and your health.” womensheatlh.gov.nd.web.4 nov 2004
  45. ^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 13 May 2009. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
  46. ^ “”The Japanese cosmetics market is actively changing,” Hajime Suzuki, Cosme Tokyo”.

re mentioned in the Old Testament—2 Kings 9:30 where Jezebel painted her eyelids—approximately 840 BC—and the book of Esther describes various beauty treatments as well.

Cosmetics were also used in ancient Rome, although much of Roman literature suggests that it was frowned upon. It is known that some women in ancient Rome invented make up including lead-based formulas, to whiten the skin, and kohl was used to line the eyes.

North Africa

Egypt

The use of cosmetics in Ancient Egypt is well documented. Kohl has its roots in north Africa. Remedies to treat wrinkles contained ingredients such as gum of frankincense and fresh moringa. For scars and burns, a special ointment was made of red ochre, kohl, and sycamore juice. An alternative treatment was a poultice of carob grounds and honey, or an ointment made of knotgrass and powdered root of wormwood. To improve breath the ancient Africans chewed herbs or frankincense which is still in use today. Jars of what could be compared with setting lotion have been found to contain a mixture of beeswax and resin. These doubled as remedies for problems such as baldness and greying hair. They also used these products on their mummies, because they believed that it would make them irresistible in the after life.

Asia

China

A Beijing opera performer with traditional stage make up

Chinese people began to stain their fingernails with gum arabic, gelatin, beeswax and egg white from around 3000 BC. The colors used represented social class: Chou dynasty (first millennium BC) royals wore gold and silver; later royals wore black or red. The lower classes were forbidden to wear bright colors on their nails.

Flowers play an important decorative role in China. Legend has it that once on the 7th day of the 1st lunar month, while Princess Shouyang, daughter of Emperor Wu of Liu Song, was resting under the eaves of Hanzhang Palace near the plum trees after wandering in the gardens, a plum blossom drifted down onto her fair face, leaving a floral imprint on her forehead that enhanced her beauty further.The court ladies were said to be so impressed, that they started decorating their own foreheads with a small delicate plum blossom design. This is also the mythical origin of the floral fashion, meihua zhuang[10] (梅花妝; literally “plum blossom makeup”), that originated in the Southern Dynasties (420–589) and became popular amongst ladies in the Tang (618–907) and Song (960–1279) dynasties.

Mongolia

Women of royal families painted red spots on the center of their cheeks, right under their eyes. However, it is a mystery why.[citation needed]

Japan

A maiko in the Gion district of Kyoto, Japan, in full make-up. The style of the lipstick indicates that she is still new.

In Japan, geisha wore lipstick made of crushed safflower petals to paint the eyebrows and edges of the eyes as well as the lips, and sticks of bintsuke wax, a softer version of the sumo wrestlers’ hair wax, were used by geisha as a makeup base. Rice powder colors the face and back; rouge contours the eye socket and defines the nose.[14] Ohaguro (black paint) colours the teeth for the ceremony, called Erikae, when maiko (apprentice geisha) graduate and become independent. The geisha would also sometimes use bird droppings to compile a lighter color.

Western Asia

Egyptian cosmetics box from the Bronze Age, Hecht Museum, Haifa

Cosmetics were used in Persia and what today is Iran from ancient periods. [citation needed] Kohl is a black powder that is used widely across the Persian Empire. It is used as a powder or smeared to darken the edges of the eyelids similar to eyeliner. After Persian tribes converted to Islam and conquered those areas, in some areas cosmetics were only restricted if they were to disguise the real look in order to mislead or cause uncontrolled desire.[citation needed] In Islamic law, despite these requirements, there is no absolute prohibition on wearing cosmetics; the cosmetics must not be made of substances that harm one’s body.

An early teacher in the 10th century was Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi, or Abulcasis, who wrote the 24-volume medical encyclopedia Al-Tasrif. A chapter of the 19th volume was dedicated to cosmetics. As the treatise was translated into Latin, the cosmetic chapter was used in the West. Al-Zahrawi considered cosmetics a branch of medicine, which he called “Medicine of Beauty” (Adwiyat al-Zinah). He deals with perfumes, scented aromatics and incense. There were perfumed sticks rolled and pressed in special molds, perhaps the earliest antecedents of present-day lipsticks and solid deodorants. He also used oily substances called Adhan for medication and beautification.[citation needed]

Europe

See also: Cosmetics in ancient Rome

1889 painting Woman at her Toilette by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec

In the Roman Empire, the use of cosmetics was common amongst prostitutes and rich women. Such adornment was sometimes lamented by certain Roman writers, who thought it to be against the castitas required of women by what they considered traditional Roman values; and later by Christian writers who expressed similar sentiments in a slightly different context. Pliny the Elder mentioned cosmetics in his Naturalis Historia, and Ovid wrote a book on the topic.

In the Middle Ages it was thought sinful and immoral to wear makeup by Church leaders,[citation needed] but many women still did so. From the Renaissance up until the 20th century the lower classes had to work outside, in agricultural jobs and the typically light-colored European’s skin was darkened by exposure to the sun. The higher a person was in status, the more leisure time he or she had to spend indoors, which kept their skin pale. Thus, the highest class of European society were pale resulting in European men and women attempting to lighten their skin directly, or using white powder on their skin to look more aristocratic.[citation needed] A variety of products were used, including white lead paint which also may have contained arsenic, which also poisoned and killed many.[citation needed] Queen Elizabeth I of England was one well-known user of white lead, with which she created a look known as “the Mask of Youth”. Portraits of the queen by Nicholas Hilliard from later in her reign are illustrative of her influential style.[citation needed]

Pale faces were a trend during the European Middle Ages. In the 16th century, women would bleed themselves to achieve pale skin. Spanish prostitutes wore pink makeup to contract pale skin.[citation needed] 13th century Italian women wore red lipstick to show that they were upper class…

The Americas and Australia

Some Native American tribes painted their faces for ceremonial events or battle.[citation needed] Similar practices were followed by Aboriginals in Australia.

Source: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

References:

  1. ^ Power, Camilla (2010). “Cosmetics, identity and consciousness”. Journal of Consciousness Studies. 17 (7–8): 73–94.
    1. ^ Power, C. (2004). “Women in prehistoric art”. In Berghaus, G. (ed.). New Perspectives in Prehistoric Art. Westport, CT & London: Praeger. pp. 75–104.
    1. ^ Watts, Ian (2009). “Red ochre, body painting and language: interpreting the Blombos ochre”. In Botha, Rudolf; Knight, Chris (eds.). The Cradle of Language. OUP Oxford. pp. 62–92. ISBN 978-0-19-156767-4.
    1. ^ Watts, Ian (1 September 2010). “The pigments from Pinnacle Point Cave 13B, Western Cape, South Africa”. Journal of Human Evolution. 59 (3): 392–411. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2010.07.006PMID 20934093.
    1. ^ Lesley Adkins, Roy A. Adkins, Handbook to life in Ancient Greece, Oxford University Press, 1998[page needed]
    1. ^ Bruno Burlando, Luisella Verotta, Laura Cornara, and Elisa Bottini-Massa, Herbal Principles in Cosmetics, CRC Press, 2010
    1. ^ Olson, Kelly (2009). “Cosmetics in Roman Antiquity: Substance, Remedy, Poison”. Classical World. 102 (3): 291–310. doi:10.1353/clw.0.0098JSTOR 40599851Project MUSE 266767.
    1. ^ “A History of Nail Lacquer: Blood Red Nails On Your Fingertips”. www.beautifully-invisible.com.
    1. Jump up to:a b Cai, Zong-qi, ed. (2008). How to read Chinese poetry: A guided anthology. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 295. ISBN 978-0-231-13941-0.
    1. Jump up to:a b c Wang, Betty. “Flower deities mark the lunar months with stories of Love & Tragedy”. Taiwan Review. Government Information Office, Republic of China. Archived from the originalon 25 May 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
    1. ^ West & East 中美月刊. Sino-American Cultural and Economic Association. 36–37: 9. 1991. ISSN 0043-3047https://books.google.com/books?ei=qXyQTqOYOIqVOpbimcwN.Missing or empty |title= (help)
    1. Jump up to:a b Huo, Jianying. “Ancient Cosmetology”. China Today. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
    1. ^ Mei, Hua (2011). Chinese clothing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-521-18689-6. For example, the Huadian or forehead decoration was said to have originated in the South Dynasty, when the Shouyang Princess was taking a walk in the palace in early spring and a light breeze brought a plum blossom onto her forehead. The plum blossom for some reason could not be washed off or removed in any way. Fortunately, it looked beautiful on her, and all of a sudden became all the rage among the girls of the commoners. It is therefore called the “Shouyang makeup” or the “plum blossom makeup.” This makeup was popular among the women for a long time in the Tang and Song Dynasties.
    1. ^ Make-Up of Geisha and Maiko Archived 9 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Immortal Geisha. Retrieved on 29 September 2010.
    1. ^ Oumeish, Oumeish Youssef (July 2001). “The cultural and philosophical concepts of cosmetics in beauty and art through the medical history of mankind”. Clinics in Dermatology. 19 (4): 375–386. doi:10.1016/s0738-081x(01)00194-8PMID 11535377.
    1. ^ History of Cosmetics. Health-and-beauty-advice.com. Retrieved on 29 September 2010.
    1. ^ inFlux ’99 | A Colorful History. Influx.uoregon.edu. Retrieved on 29 September 2010.
    1. ^ Sava, Sanda (5 May 2016). “A history of Make-up & Fashion: 1900-1910”. sandasava.com. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
    1. Jump up to:a b c Angeloglou 1970, p. 113.
    1. ^ Angeloglou 1970, p. 114.
    1. ^ Angeloglou 1970, p. 115.
    1. ^ Peiss 1998, p. 55.
    1. ^ Angeloglou 1970, p. 116.
    1. ^ Angeloglou 1970, p. 117.
    1. ^ Peiss 1998, p. 58.
    1. ^ Angeloglou 1970, p. 119.
    1. ^ Angeloglou 1970, p. 125.
    1. Jump up to:a b c Teresa Riordan. Inventing Beauty. (New York: Broadway Books, 2004).[page needed]
    1. ^ L’Oréal. Loreal.com (8 December 2009). (accessed on 29 September 2010).
    1. Jump up to:a b Haiken, Elizabeth (2000). “The Making of the Modern Face: Cosmetic Surgery”. Social Research. 67 (1): 81–97. JSTOR 40971379PMID 17099986.
    1. ^ Lee, Shu-Yueh; Clark, Naeemah (2014). “The Normalization of Cosmetic Surgery in Women’s Magazines from 1960 to 1989”. Journal of Magazine Media. 15 (1). doi:10.1353/jmm.2014.0014Project MUSE 773691.
    1. ^ Dorman, Jacob S. (1 June 2011). “Skin bleach and civilization: the racial formation of blackness in 1920s Harlem” (PDF). Journal of Pan African Studies. 4 (4): 47–81. Gale A306514735.
    1. ^ “Modern Living: Black Cosmetics”. Time Magazine. 29 June 1970. (accessed 9 February 2010).
    1. ^ Angeloglou 1970, p. 127.
    1. ^ Angeloglou 1970, p. 131.
    1. ^ Dow, Bonnie J. (2003). “Feminism, Miss America, and Media Mythology”. Rhetoric & Public Affairs. 6 (1): 127–149. doi:10.1353/rap.2003.0028S2CID 143094250.
    1. ^ Duffett, Judith (October 1968). WLM vs. Miss America. Voice of the Women’s Liberation Movement. p. 4.
    1. ^ Angeloglou 1970, p. 138.
    1. ^ “Cosmetics and Personal Care Products Naobay”. Charles Ross & Son Company. (accessed 7 June 2009).
    1. Jump up to:a b Angeloglou 1970, p. 135.
    1. ^ Angeloglou 1970, p. 137.
    1. ^ Peiss 1998, p. 5.
    1. ^ “Lessons from categorising the entire beauty products sector (Part 1)”. p. 1. Retrieved 28 September 2009.
    1. ^ “Cosmetics and your health.” womensheatlh.gov.nd.web.4 nov 2004
    1. ^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 13 May 2009. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
    1. ^ “”The Japanese cosmetics market is actively changing,” Hajime Suzuki, Cosme Tokyo”.